Academic perspectives such as critical race theory and whiteness studies use the concept to analyze how racism and racialized societies affect the lives of white or white-skinned people. According to Peggy McIntosh , whites in Western societies enjoy advantages that non-whites do not experience, as "an invisible package of unearned assets". These include cultural affirmations of one's own worth; presumed greater social status; and freedom to move , buy, work, play, and speak freely. The effects can be seen in professional, educational, and personal contexts. The concept of white privilege also implies the right to assume the universality of one's own experiences, marking others as different or exceptional while perceiving oneself as normal.